Hybrid 3D Nanostructure-Based Hole Transport Layer for Highly Efficient Inverted Perovskite Solar Cells

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces. 2021 Apr 14;13(14):16611-16619. doi: 10.1021/acsami.0c21064. Epub 2021 Mar 30.


In this study, we demonstrate a new hybrid three-dimensional (3D) nanostructure system as an efficient hole transport layer (HTL) by a facile design of a low-temperature solution process. It is realized by integrating high-conductive chromium-doped CuGaO2 nanoplates synthesized with choline chloride (denoted as Cr/CuGaO2-CC) into ultrasmall NiOx nanoparticles. First, we propose to incorporate a Cr-doped strategy under hydrothermal synthesis conditions together with controllable intermediates and surfactants' assistance to synthesize fine-sized Cr/CuGaO2-CC nanoplates. Subsequently, these two-dimensional (2D) nanoplates serve as the expressway for improving hole transportation/extraction properties. Meanwhile, the ultrasmall-sized NiOx nanoparticles are employed to modify the surface for achieving unique surface properties. The HTL formed from the designed hybrid 3D-nanostructured system exhibits the advantages of smooth and full-covered surface, remarkable charge collection efficiency, energy level alignment between the electrode and perovskite layer, and the promotion of perovskite crystal growth. Consequently, nearly 20% of power conversion efficiency with negligible hysteresis is achieved in inverted perovskite solar cells (PSCs). This work not only demonstrates the potential applications of a 3D-nanostructured Cr/CuGaO2-CC/NiOx hybrid HTL in PSCs but also provides a fundamental insight into the design of hybrid material systems by manipulating electric behavior and morphology structure for achieving high-performance photovoltaic devices.

Keywords: alignment band structure; hole transport layer; metal oxides; nanostructure; perovskite solar cells.