Evaluation of the CYP2D6 Haplotype Activity Scores Based on Metabolic Ratios of 4,700 Patients Treated With Three Different CYP2D6 Substrates

Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2021 Sep;110(3):750-758. doi: 10.1002/cpt.2246. Epub 2021 May 2.


The metabolic activity of the polymorphic CYP2D6 enzyme is dependent on the CYP2D6 genotype; however, the guidelines for translating the genotype into phenotype, which are of relevance for adequate drug dose personalization, are ambiguous. In the present study, retrospective therapeutic drug monitoring data from 4,700 CYP2D6 genotyped patients treated with risperidone, venlafaxine, and/or aripiprazole were analyzed to quantify the effect of CYP2D6 genotype on the CYP2D6 metabolic activities, as measured by metabolic ratios of these substrates. The patients were categorized into diplotypes based on the presence of normal function (CYP2D6Norm), nonfunctional (CYP2D6Nonf), and decreased function (CYP2D6Decr; i.e., CYP2D6*9, CYP2D6*10, and CYP2D6*41) CYP2D6 haplotypes. Significant correlations between the metabolic ratios were observed in patients (n = 77-103) cotreated with risperidone and venlafaxine, risperidone and aripiprazole, or venlafaxine and aripiprazole (ρ = 0.874, 0.785, and 0.644, respectively; P < 0.001 for all). Relative metabolic CYP2D6 diplotype activity was calculated based on that the metabolic ratios, where median values for CYP2D6Nonf/Nonf and CYP2D6Norm/Norm subgroups were set to 0% and 100%, respectively. The relative CYP2D6 activities were: 7.0% for CYP2D6Nonf/*41, 16.7% for CYP2D6Nonf/*9-10, 13.2% for CYP2D6*41/*41, 24.9% for CYP2D6*41/*9-10, 33.1% for CYP2D6*9-10/*9-10, 41.3% for CYP2D6Nonf/Norm, 55.0% for CYP2D6*41/Norm, 58.9% for CYP2D6*9-10/Norm, and 149.2% for CYP2D6Norm/Normx2. Compared with the CYP2D6Norm alleles, the activity scores of CYP2D6*41 and CYP2D6*9-10 alleles were estimated to be one sixth and one third, respectively. The results of this highly powered study provide a solid basis for the translation of the CYP2D6 genotype into a drug metabolic phenotype.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Alleles
  • Antipsychotic Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Aripiprazole / therapeutic use*
  • Cytochrome P-450 CYP2D6 / genetics*
  • Female
  • Genotype
  • Haplotypes / genetics*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Phenotype
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Risperidone / therapeutic use*
  • Venlafaxine Hydrochloride / therapeutic use*


  • Antipsychotic Agents
  • Venlafaxine Hydrochloride
  • Aripiprazole
  • Cytochrome P-450 CYP2D6
  • Risperidone