Background: Monogenic hypercholesterolemia with Mendelian inheritance is a heterogeneous group of diseases that are characterized by elevated plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels, and the most common form of this disorder is autosomal-dominant familial hypercholesterolemia (FH). Methods: A total of 104 index cases with the clinical diagnosis of FH were included in this study. Low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) was sequenced using the Sanger sequencing method. Results: Pathogenic/likely pathogenic variants were detected in LDLR in 55 of the 104 cases (mutation detection rate = 52.8%). Thirty different variants were detected in LDLR, three of which were novel. The total cholesterol and LDL-C values of the patients in the group of premature termination codon (PTC) mutation carriers were significantly higher than those of the patients in the group of non-PTC mutation carriers. A total of 87 patients (17 pediatric and 70 adult cases) were diagnosed with cascade genetic screening. Statin treatment was recommended to all 87 patients and was accepted and initiated in 70 of these patients. Conclusions: This study is the largest patient cohort that evaluated FH cases in the Turkish population. Herein, we revealed the LDLR mutation spectrum for a Turkish population and compared the cases in the context of genotype-phenotype correlation. Genetic screening of individuals with suspected FH not only helps to establish their diagnosis, but also facilitates early diagnosis and treatment initiation in other family members through cascade screening.
Keywords: familial hypercholesterolemia; genotype-to-phenotype; low-density lipoprotein receptor; novel variants.