Transcription factor IID (TFIID) recognizes core promoters and supports preinitiation complex (PIC) assembly for RNA polymerase II (Pol II)-mediated eukaryotic transcription. We determined the structures of human TFIID-based PIC in three stepwise assembly states and revealed two-track PIC assembly: stepwise promoter deposition to Pol II and extensive modular reorganization on track I (on TATA-TFIID-binding element promoters) versus direct promoter deposition on track II (on TATA-only and TATA-less promoters). The two tracks converge at an ~50-subunit holo PIC in identical conformation, whereby TFIID stabilizes PIC organization and supports loading of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)-activating kinase (CAK) onto Pol II and CAK-mediated phosphorylation of the Pol II carboxyl-terminal domain. Unexpectedly, TBP of TFIID similarly bends TATA box and TATA-less promoters in PIC. Our study provides structural visualization of stepwise PIC assembly on highly diversified promoters.
Copyright © 2021 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.