Purpose: Native arteriovenous fistula (AVF) is the first choice for hemodialysis access; however, the maturation failure rate remains high. Hence, balloon-assisted maturation (BAM) is increasingly being used to overcome maturation failure. This study evaluated the outcomes of BAM and compared the differences between radial-cephalic (RC) and brachial-cephalic (BC) AVF.
Materials and methods: Between January 2013 and December 2017, 1,622 new AVFs were created. BAM was considered if the AVF did not satisfy the criteria for hemodynamic maturation (6-mm diameter and 500-mL/min flow rate within 8 weeks after the operation).
Results: Of the 1,622 AVFs, BAM was performed in 142 patients (8.75%). There were 92 RC and 50 BC AVFs. Multivariate analyses revealed that ipsilateral central vein catheter history was the sole risk factor for maturation failure after BAM. Oneyear functional primary patency (FPP) and functional secondary patency (FSP) in RC AVFs were higher than those in BC AVFs without statistical significance (FPP, RC vs. BC: 70.9% vs. 50.9%, P=0.099; FSP, 95.5% vs. 81.1%, P=0.146). Further, based on the multivariate analysis, the independent risk factors for FPP in the RC and BC AVFs were the number of BAMs (odds ratio [OR], 3.05; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.11-8.37; P=0.03) and age (OR, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.00-1.07; P=0.04), respectively.
Conclusion: BAM is a relatively good salvage method with tolerable patency. However, the risk factors for patency and the outcomes of BAM differ between RC and BC AVFs.
Keywords: Arteriovenous fistula; Balloon angioplasty; Endovascular procedures; Renal dialysis.