Background: Chronic pain affects one-fifth of US adults. Reductions in opioid prescribing have been associated with increased non-prescription opioid use and, chronologically, increased stimulant (methamphetamine and cocaine) use. While non-prescription opioid use is commonly attributed to pain self-management, the role of stimulants in managing pain is unclear.
Methods: We analyzed baseline data from a longitudinal study of patients with chronic non-cancer pain in an urban safety-net healthcare system who had been prescribed an opioid for ≥3 of the last 12 months, and had a history of non-prescription opioid, cocaine, or amphetamine use (N = 300). We estimated the prevalence and identified correlates of stimulant use to treat pain among a subgroup of patients who reported past-year stimulant use (N = 105). Data sources included computer-assisted questionnaire (demographics, substance use, pain), clinical exam and procedures (pain, pain tolerance), and chart abstraction (opioid prescriptions). We conducted bivariate analyses to assess associations between demographics, pain characteristics, non-opioid therapies, substance use, opioid prescriptions, and self-reported symptoms, with reporting using stimulants to treat pain. Demographic variables and those with significant bivariate associations were included in a multivariable logistic regression model.
Results: Fifty-two percent of participants with past-year stimulant use reported using stimulants in the past year to treat pain. Participants who used stimulants for pain reported slightly higher average pain in the past 3 months (median of 8 (IQR: 6-8) vs 7 (7-9) out of 10, p = 0.049). In the multivariable analysis, female gender (AOR= 3.20, 95% CI: 1.06-9.63, p = 0.039) and higher score on the Douleur Neuropathique 4 neuropathic pain questionnaire (AOR = 1.34, 95% CI: 1.05-1.70, p = 0.017) were associated with past-year stimulant use to treat pain.
Conclusion: Stimulants may be used for pain self-management, particularly for neuropathic pain and among women. Our findings suggest an underexplored motivation for stimulant use in an era of reduced access to prescribed opioids.
Keywords: Chronic pain; cocaine; methamphetamine; pain management; safety-net clinic; stimulants.