Pro- and anti-inflammatory response in neurological disorders associated to anti-glutamate decarboxylase antibodies

J Neuroimmunol. 2021 Jun 15;355:577550. doi: 10.1016/j.jneuroim.2021.577550. Epub 2021 Mar 19.


Rare conditions showing psychiatric symptoms and movement disorders have been linked with the presence of anti-glutamate decarboxylase antibodies. Proinflammatory and antiinflammatory immune responses were assessed in patients with neurological disorders associated to anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies (NDGAD). Immunoregulatory and proinflammatory cell populations were quantified by flow cytometry. No polarization toward Th1, Th2, or Th17 phenotypes was observed in NDGAD patients. Immunoregulatory responses were significantly reduced for Breg, activated Treg, Tr1, and Th3 cells, suggesting a deficient regulatory response, while intermediate monocyte levels were increased. The reduced levels of regulatory T and B cells suggest an impairment in regulatory immune response, while intermediate monocytes could be playing a role in the increased proinflammatory response.

Keywords: Anti-GAD antibodies; Disorders; Immune response; Monocytes; Neurological; Tregs-Bregs.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents / blood
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents / immunology*
  • Autoantibodies / blood
  • Autoantibodies / immunology*
  • B-Lymphocytes / immunology*
  • B-Lymphocytes / metabolism
  • Female
  • Glutamate Decarboxylase / blood
  • Glutamate Decarboxylase / immunology*
  • Humans
  • Immunity, Cellular / immunology
  • Leukocytes, Mononuclear / immunology
  • Leukocytes, Mononuclear / metabolism
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Nervous System Diseases / blood
  • Nervous System Diseases / immunology*
  • T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer / immunology*
  • T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer / metabolism
  • Young Adult


  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents
  • Autoantibodies
  • Glutamate Decarboxylase