A Multi-Mineral Intervention to Modulate Colonic Mucosal Protein Profile: Results from a 90-Day Trial in Human Subjects

Nutrients. 2021 Mar 14;13(3):939. doi: 10.3390/nu13030939.


The overall goal of this study was to determine whether Aquamin®, a calcium-, magnesium-, trace element-rich, red algae-derived natural product, would alter the expression of proteins involved in growth-regulation and differentiation in colon. Thirty healthy human subjects (at risk for colorectal cancer) were enrolled in a three-arm, 90-day interventional trial. Aquamin® was compared to calcium alone and placebo. Before and after the interventional period, colonic biopsies were obtained. Biopsies were evaluated by immunohistology for expression of Ki67 (proliferation marker) and for CK20 and p21 (differentiation markers). Tandem mass tag-mass spectrometry-based detection was used to assess levels of multiple proteins. As compared to placebo or calcium, Aquamin® reduced the level of Ki67 expression and slightly increased CK20 expression. Increased p21 expression was observed with both calcium and Aquamin®. In proteomic screen, Aquamin® treatment resulted in many more proteins being upregulated (including pro-apoptotic, cytokeratins, cell-cell adhesion molecules, and components of the basement membrane) or downregulated (proliferation and nucleic acid metabolism) than placebo. Calcium alone also altered the expression of many of the same proteins but not to the same extent as Aquamin®. We conclude that daily Aquamin® ingestion alters protein expression profile in the colon that could be beneficial to colonic health.

Keywords: Aquamin®; biomarkers; calcium; colon cancer chemoprevention; minerals; proteomic analysis; trace elements.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Colon / drug effects*
  • Dietary Supplements
  • Double-Blind Method
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Intestinal Mucosa / drug effects*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Minerals / pharmacology*
  • Proteomics / methods*
  • Young Adult


  • Aquamin
  • Minerals