In Vivo Production of RNA Aptamers and Nanoparticles: Problems and Prospects

Molecules. 2021 Mar 6;26(5):1422. doi: 10.3390/molecules26051422.


RNA aptamers are becoming increasingly attractive due to their superior properties. This review discusses the early stages of aptamer research, the main developments in this area, and the latest technologies being developed. The review also highlights the advantages of RNA aptamers in comparison to antibodies, considering the great potential of RNA aptamers and their applications in the near future. In addition, it is shown how RNA aptamers can form endless 3-D structures, giving rise to various structural and functional possibilities. Special attention is paid to the Mango, Spinach and Broccoli fluorescent RNA aptamers, and the advantages of split RNA aptamers are discussed. The review focuses on the importance of creating a platform for the synthesis of RNA nanoparticles in vivo and examines yeast, namely Saccharomyces cerevisiae, as a potential model organism for the production of RNA nanoparticles on a large scale.

Keywords: aptamer; nanoparticles; nucleic acid nanoparticles; nucleic acids.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Aptamers, Nucleotide / administration & dosage
  • Aptamers, Nucleotide / metabolism*
  • Brassica / metabolism
  • Fluorescent Dyes / chemistry*
  • Humans
  • Mangifera / metabolism
  • Nanomedicine*
  • Nanoparticles / administration & dosage*
  • Nanoparticles / chemistry
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae / metabolism
  • Spinacia oleracea / metabolism


  • Aptamers, Nucleotide
  • Fluorescent Dyes