Neuroinflammation constitutes a normal part of the brain immune response orchestrated by microglial cells. However, a sustained and uncontrolled production of proinflammatory factors together with microglial activation contribute to the onset of a chronic low-grade inflammation, leading to neuronal damage and cognitive as well as behavioral impairments. Hence, limiting brain inflammatory response and improving the resolution of inflammation could be particularly of interest to prevent these alterations. Dietary n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) and low molecular weight peptides are good candidates because of their immunomodulatory and proresolutive properties. These compounds are present in a fish hydrolysate derived from marine-derived byproducts. In this study, we compared the effect of an 18-day supplementation with this fish hydrolysate to a supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation in mice. In response to peripherally injected LPS, the fish hydrolysate supplementation decreased the hippocampal mRNA expression of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-6 (p < 0.001), IL-1β (p = 0.0008) and TNF-α (p < 0.0001), whereas the DHA supplementation reduced only the expression of IL-6 (p = 0.004). This decline in proinflammatory cytokine expressions was associated with an increase in the protein expression of IκB (p = 0.014 and p = 0.0054 as compared to the DHA supplementation and control groups, respectively) and to a modulation of microglial activation markers in the hippocampus. The beneficial effects of the fish hydrolysate could be due in part to the switch of the hippocampal oxylipin profile towards a more anti-inflammatory profile as compared to the DHA supplementation. Thus, the valorization of fish byproducts seems very attractive to prevent and counteract neuroinflammation.
Keywords: docosahexaenoic acid (DHA); fish byproducts; low molecular weight peptides; microglia; oxylipins; resolution of inflammation.