At the Crossroad of Gene Regulation and Genome Organization: Potential Roles for ATP-Dependent Chromatin Remodelers in the Regulation of CTCF-Mediated 3D Architecture

Biology (Basel). 2021 Mar 27;10(4):272. doi: 10.3390/biology10040272.


In higher order organisms, the genome is assembled into a protein-dense structure called chromatin. Chromatin is spatially organized in the nucleus through hierarchical folding, which is tightly regulated both in cycling cells and quiescent cells. Assembly and folding are not one-time events in a cell's lifetime; rather, they are subject to dynamic shifts to allow changes in transcription, DNA replication, or DNA damage repair. Chromatin is regulated at many levels, and recent tools have permitted the elucidation of specific factors involved in the maintenance and regulation of the three-dimensional (3D) genome organization. In this review/perspective, we aim to cover the potential, but relatively unelucidated, crosstalk between 3D genome architecture and the ATP-dependent chromatin remodelers with a specific focus on how the architectural proteins CTCF and cohesin are regulated by chromatin remodeling.

Keywords: 3D genome architecture; CHD; CTCF; INO80; ISWI; SWI/SNF; chromatin remodeler; cohesin; gene regulation; looping.

Publication types

  • Review