Immunogenetic Predictors of Severe COVID-19

Vaccines (Basel). 2021 Mar 3;9(3):211. doi: 10.3390/vaccines9030211.


According to an analysis of published data, only 20% of patients with the new coronavirus infection develop severe life-threatening complications. Currently, there are no known biomarkers, the determination of which before the onset of the disease would allow assessing the likelihood of its severe course. The purpose of this literature review was to analyze possible genetic factors characterizing the immune response to the new coronavirus infection that could be associated with the expression of angiotension-converting enzyme 2 (ACE-2) and related proteins as predictors of severe Corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We analyzed original articles published in Medline, PubMed and Scopus databases from December 2019 to November 2020. For searching articles, we used the following keywords: New coronavirus infection, Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), COVID-19, severe course, complications, thrombosis, cytokine storm, ACE-2, biomarkers. In total, 3714 publications were selected using the keywords, of which 8 were in congruence with all the criteria. The literature analysis of the association of immunogenic characteristics and the expression of ACE-2 and related proteins with the development of severe COVID-19 revealed following genetic factors: HLA-B*46:01 genotype, CXCR6 gene hypoexpression, CCR9 gene expression, TLR7, rs150892504 mutations in the ERAP2 gene, overexpression of wild-type ACE-2, TMPRSS2 and its different polymorphisms. Genes, associated with the severe course, are more common among men. According to the analysis data, it can be assumed that there are population differences. However, the diagnostic significance of the markers described must be confirmed with additional clinical studies.

Keywords: ACE-2; COVID-19; HLA; biomarkers; genes; immunological parameters; new coronavirus infection.

Publication types

  • Review