Growth Restriction of Rhizoctonia solani via Breakage of Intracellular Organelles Using Crude Extracts of Gallnut and Clove

Molecules. 2021 Mar 17;26(6):1667. doi: 10.3390/molecules26061667.


Plant diseases reduce crop yield and quality, hampering the development of agriculture. Fungicides, which restrict chemical synthesis in fungi, are the strongest controls for plant diseases. However, the harmful effects on the environment due to continued and uncontrolled utilization of fungicides have become a major challenge in recent years. Plant-sourced fungicides are a class of plant antibacterial substances or compounds that induce plant defenses. They can kill or inhibit the growth of target pathogens efficiently with no or low toxicity, they degrade readily, and do not prompt development of resistance, which has led to their widespread use. In this study, the growth inhibition effect of 24 plant-sourced ethanol extracts on rice sprigs was studied. Ethanol extract of gallnuts and cloves inhibited the growth of bacteria by up to 100%. Indoor toxicity measurement results showed that the gallnut and glove constituents inhibition reached 39.23 μg/mL and 18.82 μg/mL, respectively. Extract treated rice sprigs were dry and wrinkled. Gallnut caused intracellular swelling and breakage of mitochondria, disintegration of nuclei, aggregation of protoplasts, and complete degradation of organelles in hyphae and aggregation of cellular contents. Protection of Rhizoctonia solani viability reached 46.8% for gallnut and 37.88% for clove in water emulsions of 1000 μg/mL gallnut and clove in the presence of 0.1% Tween 80. The protection by gallnut was significantly stronger than that of clove. The data could inform the choice of plant-sourced fungicides for the comprehensive treatment of rice sprig disease. The studied extract effectively protected rice sprigs and could be a suitable alternative to commercially available chemical fungicides. Further optimized field trials are needed to effectively sterilize rice paddies.

Keywords: Rhus chinensis Mill; Syzygium aromaticum; antifungal activity; rice sheath blight.

MeSH terms

  • Chromatography, Ion Exchange
  • Complex Mixtures / pharmacology*
  • Complex Mixtures / toxicity
  • Ethanol / chemistry
  • Eugenol / analysis
  • Fungicides, Industrial / pharmacology
  • Lauric Acids / analysis
  • Mass Spectrometry
  • Microscopy, Electron, Scanning
  • Microscopy, Electron, Transmission
  • Mitochondria / drug effects
  • Mitochondria / ultrastructure
  • Mycelium / drug effects
  • Mycelium / ultrastructure
  • Oryza / drug effects*
  • Oryza / microbiology
  • Plant Diseases / microbiology
  • Plant Extracts / pharmacology*
  • Plant Extracts / toxicity
  • Rhizoctonia / drug effects*
  • Rhus / chemistry*
  • Syzygium / chemistry*


  • Complex Mixtures
  • Fungicides, Industrial
  • Lauric Acids
  • Plant Extracts
  • lauric acid
  • Ethanol
  • Eugenol

Supplementary concepts

  • Rhizoctonia solani