The goal of therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) is to optimize anti-TNF (tumor necrosis factor) biologic treatment in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Although commercial assays are readily available for both ustekinumab and vedolizumab, the use of TDM with these newer biologic medications is at its infancy. The clinical utility of TDM with non-anti-TNF mechanisms of action is not clear. This review summarizes the latest available data on the pharmacokinetics of newer biologic and oral small molecules and highlights the threshold concentrations that have been associated with improved outcomes in IBD patients.
Keywords: biologic; therapeutic drug monitoring; tofacitinib; ustekinumab; vedolizumab.