Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the commonest form of lymphoid malignancy, with a prevalence of about 40% worldwide. Its classification encompasses a common form, also termed as "not otherwise specified" (NOS), and a series of variants, which are rare and at least in part related to viral agents. Over the last two decades, DLBCL-NOS, which accounts for more than 80% of the neoplasms included in the DLBCL chapter, has been the object of an increasing number of molecular studies which have led to the identification of prognostic/predictive factors that are increasingly entering daily practice. In this review, the main achievements obtained by gene expression profiling (with respect to both neoplastic cells and the microenvironment) and next-generation sequencing will be discussed and compared. Only the amalgamation of molecular attributes will lead to the achievement of the long-term goal of using tailored therapies and possibly chemotherapy-free protocols capable of curing most (if not all) patients with minimal or no toxic effects.
Keywords: classification; diagnosis; diffuse large B-cell lymphoma; gene expression profiling; next-generation sequencing; prognosis; therapy.