Clinical and electroencephalogram (EEG) features in frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE) vary considerably among patients, making the diagnosis a challenge. The objective of this study was to describe interictal and ictal EEG activity, identifying variables that could help to differentiate and diagnose frontal lobe epilepsy cases. A prospective cross-sectional study from patients with frontal interictal epileptiform discharges (IED) referred to the Vall d'Hebron University Hospital (Barcelona, Spain) after a clinical event compatible with epileptic seizures was designed. The interictal and ictal activity were analyzed to provide a detailed EEG description of the cases, using different statistical analyses. The morphological seizure pattern at the ictal onset remained globally unchanged over time in seizures arising from the frontal lobe for each patient. Isolated sharp waves were the most frequent waveforms in the expression of IED. Frontal lobe seizures are frequently short and sometimes appear grouped in clusters within the same recording. Often the ictal expression of the electrical activity in frontal lobe seizure is subtle and challenging to interpret. A description of the main findings is summarized to identify seizures arising from the frontal lobe and avoid false negatives findings in EEG interpretations.
Keywords: EEG; EEG discharges in focal epilepsy; EEG morphology; electroencephalography; frontal lobe seizures.