Regulation of Inflammation and Oxidative Stress by Formyl Peptide Receptors in Cardiovascular Disease Progression

Life (Basel). 2021 Mar 15;11(3):243. doi: 10.3390/life11030243.


G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are the most important regulators of cardiac function and are commonly targeted for medical therapeutics. Formyl-Peptide Receptors (FPRs) are members of the GPCR superfamily and play an emerging role in cardiovascular pathologies. FPRs can modulate oxidative stress through nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase-dependent reactive oxygen species (ROS) production whose dysregulation has been observed in different cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, many studies are focused on identifying molecular mechanisms of the regulation of ROS production. FPR1, FPR2 and FPR3 belong to the FPRs family and their stimulation triggers phosphorylation of intracellular signaling molecules and nonsignaling proteins that are required for NADPH oxidase activation. Some FPR agonists trigger inflammatory processes, while other ligands activate proresolving or anti-inflammatory pathways, depending on the nature of the ligands. In general, bacterial and mitochondrial formylated peptides activate a proinflammatory cell response through FPR1, while Annexin A1 and Lipoxin A4 are anti-inflammatory FPR2 ligands. FPR2 can also trigger a proinflammatory pathway and the switch between FPR2-mediated pro- and anti-inflammatory cell responses depends on conformational changes of the receptor upon ligand binding. Here we describe the detrimental or beneficial effects of the main FPR agonists and their potential role as new therapeutic and diagnostic targets in the progression of cardiovascular diseases.

Keywords: NADPH oxidase; annexin A1; formyl-peptide receptors; inflammation; lipoxin A4; reactive oxygen species; serum-amyloid alpha.

Publication types

  • Review