In the last few decades, photovoltaics have contributed deeply to electric power networks due to their economic and technical benefits. Typically, photovoltaic systems are widely used and implemented in many fields like electric vehicles, homes, and satellites. One of the biggest problems that face the relatability and stability of the electrical power system is the loss of one of the photovoltaic modules. In other words, fault detection methods designed for photovoltaic systems are required to not only diagnose but also clear such undesirable faults to improve the reliability and efficiency of solar farms. Accordingly, the loss of any module leads to a decrease in the efficiency of the overall system. To avoid this issue, this paper proposes an optimum solution for fault finding, tracking, and clearing in an effective manner. Specifically, this proposed approach is done by developing one of the most promising techniques of artificial intelligence called the adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system. The proposed fault detection approach is based on associating the actual measured values of current and voltage with respect to the trained historical values for this parameter while considering the ambient changes in conditions including irradiation and temperature. Two adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system-based controllers are proposed: (1) the first one is utilized to detect the faulted string and (2) the other one is utilized for detecting the exact faulted group in the photovoltaic array. The utilized model was installed using a configuration of 4 × 4 photovoltaic arrays that are connected through several switches, besides four ammeters and four voltmeters. This study is implemented using MATLAB/Simulink and the simulation results are presented to show the validity of the proposed technique. The simulation results demonstrate the innovation of this study while proving the effective and high performance of the proposed adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system-based approach in fault tracking, detection, clearing, and rearrangement for practical photovoltaic systems.
Keywords: ANFIS; PV arrays; data analysis; fault detection; module rearrangement.