In this study, poly(9-vinylcarbazole) (PVK)-based LEDs doped with reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and cadmium sulphide (CdS) nanocrystals were fabricated by spin-coating. The hybrid LED structure was a layer sequence of glass/indium tin oxide (ITO)/PEDOT:PSS|rGO/PVK/Al. rGO was included in the poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) layer due to its energy bands being close to PEDOT:PSS bands, and the possibility of using water for dispersing both polymer and flakes. Optical properties such as photoluminescence and UV-Vis absorption were not affected by the addition of rGO to the PEDOT:PSS solution. However, PVK-based LEDs with rGO showed increased current density compared to those without rGO in the hole transporting layer. Higher electroluminescence intensities were observed for rGO-enriched LEDs, although the shape of the spectrum was not modified. LEDs including CdS nanocrystals in the poly(9-vinylcarbazole) emissive layer did not show such dependence on the rGO presence. Though the addition of rGO to PEDOT:PSS still produces a slightly higher current density in CdS doped LEDs, this growth is no longer proportional to the rGO load.
Keywords: PVK; cadmium sulphide; electroluminescence; hybrid light-emitting device; nanocrystals; reduced graphene oxide.