Characteristics of Onefold Clocks of GPS, Galileo, BeiDou and GLONASS Systems

Sensors (Basel). 2021 Mar 30;21(7):2396. doi: 10.3390/s21072396.


This research is focused on searching for frequency and noise characteristics for available GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite Systems). The authors illustrated frequency stability and noise characteristics for a selected set of data from four different GNSS systems. For this purpose, 30-s-interval clock corrections were used for the GPS weeks 1982-2034 (the entirety of 2018). Firstly, phase data (raw clock corrections) were preprocessed for shifts and removal of outliers; GLONASS and GPS satellites characterize a smaller number of outliers than BeiDou and Galileo clock products. Secondly, frequency and Hadamard deviation were calculated. This study concludes that the stability of GPS and Galileo is better than that of BDS (BeiDou Navigation Satellite System) and GLONASS. Regarding noise, the GPS, Galileo, and BDS clocks are affected by the random walk modulation noise (RWFM), flashing frequency modulation noise (FFM), and white frequency modulation noise (WFM), whereas the GLONASS clocks are mainly affected only by WFM.

Keywords: BeiDou; GLONASS; GNSS; GPS; Galileo; clock; clock analysis.