Recent Advances in Internet of Things (IoT) Infrastructures for Building Energy Systems: A Review

Sensors (Basel). 2021 Mar 19;21(6):2152. doi: 10.3390/s21062152.


This paper summarises a literature review on the applications of Internet of Things (IoT) with the aim of enhancing building energy use and reducing greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs). A detailed assessment of contemporary practical reviews and works was conducted to understand how different IoT systems and technologies are being developed to increase energy efficiencies in both residential and commercial buildings. Most of the reviewed works were invariably related to the dilemma of efficient heating systems in buildings. Several features of the central components of IoT, namely, the hardware and software needed for building controls, are analysed. Common design factors across the many IoT systems comprise the selection of sensors and actuators and their powering techniques, control strategies for collecting information and activating appliances, monitoring of actual data to forecast prospect energy consumption and communication methods amongst IoT components. Some building energy applications using IoT are provided. It was found that each application presented has the potential for significant energy reduction and user comfort improvement. This is confirmed in two case studies summarised, which report the energy savings resulting from implementing IoT systems. Results revealed that a few elements are user-specific that need to be considered in the decision processes. Last, based on the studies reviewed, a few aspects of prospective research were recommended.

Keywords: Internet of Things (IoT); building energy management; energy control; energy efficiency; smart energy systems.

Publication types

  • Review