Purpose: The purpose of this study was to discover the aqueous humor proteomic changes associated with visual field indices in glaucoma patients.
Methods: Aqueous humor samples were analyzed using Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The visual fields were analyzed with the Humphrey Visual Field analyzer. Statistical analyses were performed to discover the relationship between the aqueous humor proteins and visual field parameters including Pattern Standard Deviation (PSD), Visual Field Index (VFI), Mean Deviation (MD) and Glaucoma Hemifield Test (GHT).
Results: In total, 222 proteins were identified in 49 aqueous humor samples. A total of 11, 9, 7, and 6 proteins were significantly correlated with PSD, VFI, MD, and GHT respectively. These proteins include apolipoprotein D, members of complement pathway (C1S, C4A, C4B, C8B, and CD14), and immunoglobulin family (IKHV3-9, IGKV2-28).
Conclusion: Several proteins involved in immune responses (immunoglobulins and complement factors) and neurodegeneration (apolipoprotein D) were identified to be associated with abnormal visual field parameters. These findings provide targets for future studies investigating precise molecular mechanisms and new therapies for glaucomatous optic neuropathy.
Keywords: aqueous humor; glaucoma; mass spectrometry; proteomics; visual field.