Sleep Debt and Social Jetlag Associated with Sleepiness, Mood, and Work Performance among Workers in Japan

Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2021 Mar 12;18(6):2908. doi: 10.3390/ijerph18062908.


Although sleep debt and social jetlag (SJL) influence daytime dysfunctions, the effects of both sleep debt and SJL on them have not been analyzed. The aim of this study was to examine the mutual relationship between sleep debt and SJL on daytime sleepiness, mood, and work performance. This study was a cross-sectional study on sleep health conducted on the Japanese general population. A total of 4505 general workers (30% female, aged 43.57 ± 11.63 years) were selected and analyzed. Sleep debt was defined by sleep debt index (SDI), which is the discrepancy between desired and real sleep duration. SJL and SDI scores exhibited a positive but weak coefficient (r = 0.19). In a 4 (SJL) × 3 (SDI) two-way ANOVA, the interaction effects were notable for sleepiness and depression scores, while the group effects were notable for the work performance score. For sleepiness and depression scores, SDI >2 h was not significantly different from SJL. In addition, the impact of SDI was higher than that of SJL on sleepiness (β = 0.17), depression (β = 0.16), and work performance (β = -0.10). The impact of sleep debt was more pronounced than SJL on daytime dysfunctions, although both sleep debt and SJL have negative impacts on them.

Keywords: depression; presenteeism; sleep debt; sleepiness; social jetlag; work performance.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Circadian Rhythm
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Japan / epidemiology
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Sleep
  • Sleep Deprivation* / epidemiology
  • Sleepiness
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Work Performance*