Acute myocardial infarction (MI) is one of the most common causes of death worldwide. Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a cardioprotective neuropeptide expressing its receptors in the cardiovascular system. The aim of our study was to examine tissue PACAP-38 in a translational porcine MI model and plasma PACAP-38 levels in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Significantly lower PACAP-38 levels were detected in the non-ischemic region of the left ventricle (LV) in MI heart compared to the ischemic region of MI-LV and also to the Sham-operated LV in porcine MI model. In STEMI patients, plasma PACAP-38 level was significantly higher before percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) compared to controls, and decreased after PCI. Significant negative correlation was found between plasma PACAP-38 and troponin levels. Furthermore, a significant effect was revealed between plasma PACAP-38, hypertension and HbA1c levels. This was the first study showing significant changes in cardiac tissue PACAP levels in a porcine MI model and plasma PACAP levels in STEMI patients. These results suggest that PACAP, due to its cardioprotective effects, may play a regulatory role in MI and could be a potential biomarker or drug target in MI.
Keywords: ELISA; STEMI; acute myocardial infarction; cardioprotection; closed-chest myocardial infarction model; pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide; prognostic factor.