Pulmonary inflammatory response from co-exposure to LPS and glyphosate

Environ Toxicol Pharmacol. 2021 Aug:86:103651. doi: 10.1016/j.etap.2021.103651. Epub 2021 Mar 31.


Agricultural airborne work exposures are complex in nature and workplace exposures are a risk for respiratory outcomes in workers. Endotoxin and glyphosate are two common agents in agricultural exposures. While endotoxin (lipopolysaccaride, LPS) is a potent inflammatory agent it explains only a portion of the respiratory inflammatory response. The inflammatory potential when LPS is presented with another common agricultural respiratory agent, glyphosate, is not known.

Methods: Mice were assigned to four treatment groups: control, LPS alone, glyphosate alone, glyphosate and LPS combined. Treatments were for 1, 5 or 10 days.

Results: Five days of repeated exposure to the comintation of LPS and glyphosate resulted in higher neutrophil counts, myloperoxidase, TNF-α, IL-6, KC levels, and ICAM-1 and TLR-2 expression compared to the same length of treatment to LPS or glyphosate alone. After 10-days of exposure, inflammatory responses decreased, however leukocyte infiltration persisted along with increases in IL-4.

Conclusions: Glyphosate exposure modified LPS induced lung inflammatory responses and TLR-2 may be important in the modulated inflammatory response.

Keywords: Combined exposure; Glyphosate; LPS; Lung inflammation.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid / cytology
  • Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid / immunology
  • Cytokines / immunology
  • Drug Interactions
  • Glycine / analogs & derivatives*
  • Glycine / toxicity
  • Glyphosate
  • Herbicides / toxicity*
  • Inflammation / chemically induced
  • Inflammation / immunology
  • Inflammation / pathology
  • Leukocyte Count
  • Lipopolysaccharides / toxicity*
  • Lung / drug effects
  • Lung / immunology
  • Lung / pathology
  • Lung Diseases / chemically induced*
  • Lung Diseases / immunology
  • Lung Diseases / pathology
  • Male
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred C57BL
  • Peroxidase / immunology
  • Toll-Like Receptor 2 / genetics
  • Toll-Like Receptor 2 / immunology


  • Cytokines
  • Herbicides
  • Lipopolysaccharides
  • Tlr2 protein, mouse
  • Toll-Like Receptor 2
  • Peroxidase
  • Glycine