Good Validity and High Internal Consistency of the Forgotten Joint Score-12 in Patients After Medial Opening Wedge High Tibial Osteotomy

J Arthroplasty. 2021 Aug;36(8):2691-2697. doi: 10.1016/j.arth.2021.03.028. Epub 2021 Mar 13.


Background: The Forgotten Joint Score-12 (FJS-12) was originally developed to assess awareness of an artificial joint. Medial opening wedge high tibial osteotomy (MOWHTO), an alternative surgical method of knee replacement, is a joint-preservation surgery; therefore, joint awareness should be used to evaluate its clinical results. However, FJS-12 has not been validated as a tool to evaluate the postoperative results of MOWHTO. This study aimed to validate FJS-12 in MOWHTO.

Methods: Patients with bilateral knee surgery, previous knee surgery, flexion contracture >15°, varus alignment >20°, and patients without plate removal surgery were excluded. Finally, 71 knees of 71 patients were analyzed, with a mean follow-up of 34.5 months. The FJS-12 score and Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) were obtained, and the floor and ceiling effect of each score was investigated. Cronbach's α was calculated to determine the internal consistency of FJS-12. Spearman's correlation coefficients between FJS-12 and KOOS were calculated to assess convergent validity.

Results: There were ceiling effects in 3 KOOS subscales (symptoms [25.4%], pain [15.5%], and activities of daily living [25.4%]) but not in FJS-12 (8.5%). No floor effect was noted in any patient-reported outcome measures. The total Cronbach's α was 0.9457 in FJS-12. FJS-12 showed moderate-to-strong positive correlations with all KOOS subscales (r = 0.64-0.72).

Conclusion: FJS-12 showed a lower ceiling effect than KOOS and high internal consistency and convergent validity in patients following MOWHTO. With its low ceiling effect, FJS-12 was found to be useful for evaluating patients following MOWHTO.

Keywords: Forgotten Joint Score-12; Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS); ceiling effect; medial opening wedge high tibial osteotomy; patient-reported outcome measures.

MeSH terms

  • Activities of Daily Living
  • Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee*
  • Humans
  • Knee Joint / diagnostic imaging
  • Knee Joint / surgery
  • Osteoarthritis, Knee* / surgery
  • Osteotomy
  • Patient Reported Outcome Measures
  • Reproducibility of Results