Impact of the pupil size - central optical zone diameter relationship on visual performance in aspheric multifocal contact lenses

Cont Lens Anterior Eye. 2022 Apr;45(2):101440. doi: 10.1016/j.clae.2021.03.007. Epub 2021 Apr 2.


Purpose: To determine the impact of different central optical zone diameters (COZDs), obtained from pupil size, on the visual performance of presbyopic subjects fitted with centre-distance simultaneous-image multifocal contact lenses (SIMCLs).

Methods: Thirty-two presbyopic volunteers, between 45-58 years of age, participated in this prospective, controlled, double-blind study. Subjects were fitted with 5 centre-distance SIMCLs of variable COZD, determined from the measurement of pupil size under photopic light conditions and corresponding to 60, 70, 80, 90 and 100 % of pupil diameter. Subjects visual performance was evaluated through the measurement of distance, intermediate and near visual acuity (VA), "visual functional range" (VFR) obtained from the VA Defocus Curve (VADC) and Contrast Sensitivity Function (CSF), using a third-generation retina display iPad.

Results: Statistically significant differences were obtained for both distance (p = 0.01) and intermediate (p = 0.001) VA amongst designs. Best results were obtained with 80 % and 90 % COZDs compared to 60 %. No significant differences in VFR (p > 0.05) were obtained amongst the different COZDs. 90 and 100 % COZDs offered statistically significant better results at 6 and 18 cycles per degree (cpd) in the CSF, compared to the 60 and 70 % designs.

Conclusions: SIMCLs with COZDs of 80-90 % and of 90-100% of photopic pupil diameter offered better distance and intermediate VA, without a decline in near performance, and superior contrast sensitivity at medium and high spatial frequencies respectively, compared to lower COZD designs.

Keywords: Central optical zone diameter; Contrast sensitivity function; Pupil diameter; Simultaneous-image multifocal contact lenses; Visual acuity; Visual acuity defocus curve.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Contact Lenses*
  • Contrast Sensitivity
  • Double-Blind Method
  • Humans
  • Middle Aged
  • Prospective Studies
  • Pupil*
  • Visual Acuity