Transrectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsy performed by supervised junior and senior residents is safe and does not result in inferior outcomes

Am J Clin Exp Urol. 2021 Feb 15;9(1):150-156. eCollection 2021.


Purpose: To compare transrectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsy (TRUSBx) cancer detection and complication rates between residents at different levels of training and attending physicians at a single academic center.

Methods: We performed a retrospective review of consecutive series of 623 men undergoing TRUSBx from June 2014 to February 2017. The procedure was performed either by resident physicians under direct supervision by an attending physician or by an attending physician. In total, junior residents, senior residents and attending physicians performed 244, 212, and 167 biopsies, respectively. Prostate cancer detection, 30-day complications, and 30-day hospitalizations rates were the outcomes of interest. We performed multivariable logistic regression analysis to identify predictors of these outcomes and examined the hypothesis that TRUSBx performed by trainees would not be associated with inferior outcomes.

Results: There was no statistically significant difference in patient populations between the three groups when stratified by age, BMI, Charleston co-morbidity index, aspirin use, PSA level and palpable nodule on DRE. Prostate cancer was detected in 43.8% of the biopsies and there was no difference in detection rates (P = 0.53), Gleason score (P = 0.11), number of positive cores (P = 0.95), 30-day hospitalization (P = 0.86), and 30-day complication rates (P = 0.67) between TRUSBx performed by trainees and attending physicians.

Conclusions: TRUSBx performed by residents and attending physicians yielded equivalent rates of cancer detection with no significant difference in 30-day complications or 30-day hospitalizations rates. There was no difference in outcomes between junior and senior residents suggesting that with adequate faculty supervision, it is safe for trainees at all levels to perform prostate biopsies.

Keywords: Transrectal ultrasound; biopsy; prostate cancer; resident training.