Effects of data count and image scaling on Deep Learning training

PeerJ Comput Sci. 2020 Nov 16;6:e312. doi: 10.7717/peerj-cs.312. eCollection 2020.

Abstract

Background: Deep learning using convolutional neural networks (CNN) has achieved significant results in various fields that use images. Deep learning can automatically extract features from data, and CNN extracts image features by convolution processing. We assumed that increasing the image size using interpolation methods would result in an effective feature extraction. To investigate how interpolation methods change as the number of data increases, we examined and compared the effectiveness of data augmentation by inversion or rotation with image augmentation by interpolation when the image data for training were small. Further, we clarified whether image augmentation by interpolation was useful for CNN training. To examine the usefulness of interpolation methods in medical images, we used a Gender01 data set, which is a sex classification data set, on chest radiographs. For comparison of image enlargement using an interpolation method with data augmentation by inversion and rotation, we examined the results of two- and four-fold enlargement using a Bilinear method.

Results: The average classification accuracy improved by expanding the image size using the interpolation method. The biggest improvement was noted when the number of training data was 100, and the average classification accuracy of the training model with the original data was 0.563. However, upon increasing the image size by four times using the interpolation method, the average classification accuracy significantly improved to 0.715. Compared with the data augmentation by inversion and rotation, the model trained using the Bilinear method showed an improvement in the average classification accuracy by 0.095 with 100 training data and 0.015 with 50,000 training data. Comparisons of the average classification accuracy of the chest X-ray images showed a stable and high-average classification accuracy using the interpolation method.

Conclusion: Training the CNN by increasing the image size using the interpolation method is a useful method. In the future, we aim to conduct additional verifications using various medical images to further clarify the reason why image size is important.

Keywords: Bicubic; Hamming; Nearest; Bilinear; Deep learning; Fashion-MNIST; Image scaling; Interpolation; Lanczos; Medical image.

Grant support

The authors received no funding for this work.