Impact of educational intervention by community pharmacists on asthma clinical outcomes, quality of life and medication adherence: A systematic review and meta-analysis

J Clin Pharm Ther. 2021 Oct;46(5):1254-1262. doi: 10.1111/jcpt.13419. Epub 2021 Apr 5.


What is known and objective: Community pharmacists can play an important role in controlling chronic diseases. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of pharmacists' educational interventions in the community pharmacy settings on asthma control and severity, quality of life (QOL) and medication adherence.

Methods: Databases PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science were searched for evidence regarding asthma severity and control, QOL, and medication adherence after pharmacists' interventions in community pharmacy settings. Twenty-one studies were eligible for qualitative and quantitative analysis. Indices and questionnaires were used in the studies, such as Asthma-related quality of life (IAQLQ), Asthma Control Test (ACT), Perceived Control of Asthma Questionnaire (PCAQ), inhaler technique (IT), Asthma Control Questionnaire (ACQ), 36-Item Short Form survey (SF-36) and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR). The outcomes were extracted, pooled and analysed as percentages, means, standard deviations and errors, and 95% confidence intervals (CIs).

Results and discussion: Community pharmacists in all studies educated and followed up the asthmatic patients, addressing the outcome measures. Pharmacists underwent training courses of at least a day. Standardized mean differences for the indices were pooled as follows: IAQLQ -0.241 (95% CI, -0.362 to -0.121), ACT 0.14 (95% CI, 0.02 to 0.27), PCAQ -0.15 (95% CI, -0.28 to 0.01), IT 0.79 (95% CI, 0.05 to 1.54), ACQ -0.50 (95% CI, -0.69 to -0.30), SF-36 0.39 (95% CI, 0.16 to 0.62), PEFR 0.13 (95% CI, 0.01 to 0.26) and asthma symptoms score -0.34 (95% CI, -0.49 to -0.18).

What is new and conclusion: Pharmacists' educational interventions in community pharmacy settings could significantly improve asthma severity and control, QOL and medication adherence.

Keywords: asthma; community pharmacist; community pharmacy; medication adherence; patient education; quality of life.

Publication types

  • Review