Treading a HOSTile path: Mapping the dynamic landscape of host cell-rotavirus interactions to explore novel host-directed curative dimensions

Virulence. 2021 Dec;12(1):1022-1062. doi: 10.1080/21505594.2021.1903198.

Abstract

Viruses are intracellular pathogens and are dependent on host cellular resources to carry out their cycles of perpetuation. Obtaining an integrative view of host-virus interaction is of utmost importance to understand the complex and dynamic interplay between viral components and host machineries. Besides its obvious scholarly significance, a comprehensive host-virus interaction profile also provides a platform where from host determinants of pro-viral and antiviral importance can be identified and further be subjected to therapeutic intervention. Therefore, adjunct to conventional methods of prophylactic vaccination and virus-directed antivirals, this host-targeted antiviral approach holds promising therapeutic potential. In this review, we present a comprehensive landscape of host cellular reprogramming in response to infection with rotavirus (RV) which causes profuse watery diarrhea in neonates and infants. In addition, an emphasis is given on how host determinants are either usurped or subverted by RV in course of infection and how therapeutic manipulation of specific host factors can effectively modulate the RV life cycle.

Keywords: Rotavirus; host-directed antivirals; host–virus interactions; pro-viral and antiviral host determinants.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Antiviral Agents
  • Diarrhea
  • Host Microbial Interactions
  • Humans
  • Rotavirus Infections*
  • Rotavirus*

Substances

  • Antiviral Agents

Grant support

Work in our laboratory relevant to this article were supported by intramural grants from Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR), New Delhi, and extramural grants from i) Department of Science and Technology, Government of West Bengal, ii) Science and Engineering Research Board; Dept. of Science and Technology (DST‐SERB), Government of India (Grant number EMR/2016/001361), iii) Department of Biotechnology (DBT)–Women Bioscientist Grant (Grant number BT/HRD/NWBA/36/01/2013-14), India (awarded to M. C. S), and iv) Okayama University through Japan Initiative for Global Research Network on Infectious Diseases (J‐GRID) of the Agency for Medical Research and Development (AMED).