Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) is a major bacterial pathogen that causes periodontitis, a chronic inflammatory disease of tissues around the teeth. Periodontitis is known to be related to other diseases, such as oral cancer, Alzheimer's disease, and rheumatism. Thus, a precise and sensitive test to detect P. gingivalis is necessary for the early diagnosis of periodontitis. The objective of this study was to optimize a rapid visual detection system for P. gingivalis. First, we performed a visual membrane immunoassay using 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB; blue) and coating and detection antibodies that could bind to the host laboratory strain, ATCC 33277. Antibodies against the P. gingivalis surface adhesion molecules RgpB (arginine proteinase) and Kgp (lysine proteinase) were determined to be the most specific coating and detection antibodies, respectively. Using these two selected antibodies, the streptavidin-horseradish peroxidase (HRP) reaction was performed using a nitrocellulose membrane and visualized with a detection range of 103-105 bacterial cells/ml following incubation for 15 min. These selected conditions were applied to test other oral bacteria, and the results showed that P. gingivalis could be detected without crossreactivity to other bacteria, including Streptococcus mutans and Escherichia fergusonii. Furthermore, three clinical strains of P. gingivalis, KCOM 2880, KCOM 2803, and KCOM 3190, were also recognized using this optimized enzyme immunoassay (EIA) system. To conclude, we established optimized conditions for P. gingivalis detection with specificity, accuracy, and sensitivity. These results could be utilized to manufacture economical and rapid detection kits for P. gingivalis.
Keywords: Porphyromonas gingivalis; periodontitis; visual membrane immunoassay.