Rotavirus Genotype Trends and Gastrointestinal Pathogen Detection in the United States, 2014-2016: Results From the New Vaccine Surveillance Network

J Infect Dis. 2021 Nov 16;224(9):1539-1549. doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiab177.


Background: Following the implementation of rotavirus vaccination in 2006, severe acute gastroenteritis (AGE) due to group A rotavirus (RVA) has substantially declined in US children. We report the RVA genotype prevalence as well as coinfection data from 7 US New Vaccine Surveillance Network sites during 3 consecutive RVA seasons, 2014-2016.

Methods: A total of 1041 stool samples that tested positive for RVA by Rotaclone enzyme immunoassay were submitted to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) for RVA genotyping and multipathogen testing.

Results: A total of 795 (76%) samples contained detectable RVA when tested at the CDC. Rotavirus disease was highest in children < 3 years of age. Four G types (G1, G2, G9, and G12) accounted for 94.6% of strains while 2 P types (P[4] and P[8]) accounted for 94.7% of the strains. Overall, G12P[8] was the most common genotype detected in all 3 seasons. Stepwise conditional logistic analysis found year and study site were significant predictors of genotype. Twenty-four percent of RVA-positive specimens contained other AGE pathogens.

Conclusions: G12P[8] predominated over 3 seasons, but strain predominance varied by year and study site. Ongoing surveillance provides continuous tracking and monitoring of US genotypes during the postvaccine era.

Keywords: NVSN; US; gastrointestinal pathogen; genotyping; rotavirus.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Child
  • Feces
  • Gastroenteritis* / epidemiology
  • Genotype
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Phylogeny
  • Population Surveillance / methods*
  • Prevalence
  • Rotavirus / genetics
  • Rotavirus / isolation & purification*
  • Rotavirus Infections / epidemiology*
  • United States / epidemiology
  • Vaccines*


  • Vaccines