An effective vaccine for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is an unrealized public health goal. A single dose of the prefusion-stabilized fusion (F) glycoprotein subunit vaccine (DS-Cav1) substantially increases serum-neutralizing activity in healthy adults. We sought to determine whether DS-Cav1 vaccination induces a repertoire mirroring the pre-existing diversity from natural infection or whether antibody lineages targeting specific epitopes predominate. We evaluated RSV F-specific B cell responses before and after vaccination in six participants using complementary B cell sequencing methodologies and identified 555 clonal lineages. DS-Cav1-induced lineages recognized the prefusion conformation of F (pre-F) and were genetically diverse. Expressed antibodies recognized all six antigenic sites on the pre-F trimer. We identified 34 public clonotypes, and structural analysis of two antibodies from a predominant clonotype revealed a common mode of recognition. Thus, vaccination with DS-Cav1 generates a diverse polyclonal response targeting the antigenic sites on pre-F, supporting the development and advanced testing of pre-F-based vaccines against RSV.
Keywords: RSV; antibody repertoire; cryo-EM structure; fusion glycoprotein; memory B cells; neutralizing antibodies; prefusion; public clonotypes; respiratory syncytial virus.
Published by Elsevier Inc.