Venous Outflow Profiles Are Linked to Cerebral Edema Formation at Noncontrast Head CT after Treatment in Acute Ischemic Stroke Regardless of Collateral Vessel Status at CT Angiography

Radiology. 2021 Jun;299(3):682-690. doi: 10.1148/radiol.2021203651. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Abstract

Background Ischemic lesion net water uptake (NWU) at noncontrast head CT enables quantification of cerebral edema in patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) due to large vessel occlusion (LVO). Purpose To assess whether favorable venous outflow (VO) profiles at CT angiography are associated with reduced NWU and good functional outcomes in patients with AIS due to LVO. Materials and Methods This multicenter retrospective cohort study evaluated consecutive patients with AIS due to LVO who underwent thrombectomy triage between January 2013 and December 2019. Arterial collateral vessel status (Tan scale) and venous output were measured at CT angiography. Venous outflow was graded with use of the cortical vein opacification score, which quantifies opacification of the vein of Labbé, sphenoparietal sinus, and superficial middle cerebral vein. Favorable VO was regarded as a score of 3-6 and unfavorable VO as a score of 0-2. NWU was determined at follow-up noncontrast CT. Multivariable regression analyses were performed to determine the association between favorable VO profiles and NWU after treatment and good functional outcome (modified Rankin Scale, ≤2). Results A total of 580 patients were included. Of the 580 patients, 231 had favorable VO (104 women; median age, 73 years [interquartile range {IQR}, 62-81 years]) and 349 had unfavorable VO (190 women; median age, 77 years [IQR, 66-84 years]). Compared with patients with unfavorable VO, those with favorable VO exhibited lower baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score (median, 12.5 [IQR, 7-17] vs 17 [IQR, 13-21]), higher Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (median, 9 [IQR, 7-10] vs 7 [IQR, 6-8]), and less NWU after treatment (median, 7% [IQR, 4.6%-11.5%] vs 17.9% [IQR, 12.3%-22.2%]). In a multivariable regression analysis, NWU mean difference between patients with unfavorable VO and those with favorable VO was 6.1% (95% CI: 4.9, 7.3; P < .001) regardless of arterial CT angiography collateral vessel status (b coefficient, 0.72 [95% CI: -0.59, 2.03; P = .28]). Favorable VO (odds ratio [OR]: 4.1 [95% CI: 2.2, 7.7]; P < .001) and reduced NWU after treatment (OR: 0.77 [95% CI: 0.73, 0.83]; P < .001) were independently associated with good functional outcomes. Conclusion Favorable venous outflow (VO) correlated with reduced ischemic net water uptake (NWU) after treatment. Reduced NWU and favorable VO were associated with good functional outcomes regardless of CT angiography arterial collateral vessel status. © RSNA, 2021 Online supplemental material is available for this article.

Publication types

  • Multicenter Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Brain Edema / diagnostic imaging*
  • Cerebral Angiography*
  • Cerebral Veins / diagnostic imaging*
  • Computed Tomography Angiography*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Ischemic Stroke / diagnostic imaging*
  • Ischemic Stroke / therapy*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Retrospective Studies