The role for intra-arterial chemotherapy for refractory retinoblastoma: a systematic review

Clin Transl Oncol. 2021 Oct;23(10):2066-2077. doi: 10.1007/s12094-021-02610-z. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Abstract

Background: Intra-arterial chemotherapy is a new retinoblastoma treatment associated with high rates of globe salvage that has been widely adopted for primary treatment of retinoblastoma but is less frequently used as secondary treatment for refractory retinoblastoma. This systematic review aims to summarize the reported outcomes of intra-arterial chemotherapy for refractory retinoblastoma.

Methods: We conducted a systematic review of studies published on PubMed, Medline, and Embase from 2011 to 2021 reporting globe salvage rates following intra-arterial chemotherapy for secondary treatment of refractory retinoblastoma.

Results: Our search yielded 316 studies, and 24 met inclusion criteria. The 24 included studies were comprised of 1366 patients and 1757 eyes. Among these, 1184 (67%) eyes received secondary indication treatment, and globe salvage was achieved for 776 of these 1184 eyes (64%). Sixteen studies reported cannulation success rates from 71.8 to 100%. Pooled analysis of subjects revealed 21 patients (2.6%) with metastatic disease and 26 deaths (3%) during study follow-up periods (7-74 months). The most common ocular complications were vitreous hemorrhage (13.2%), loss of eyelashes (12.7%), and periocular edema (10.5%). The most common systemic complications were nausea/vomiting (20.5%), neutropenia (14.1%), fever (8.2%), and bronchospasm (6.2%).

Conclusions: Intra-arterial chemotherapy is associated with high rates of globe salvage and low rates of serious complications in patients with refractory retinoblastoma. Unfortunately, current literature is predominantly comprised of retrospective case studies, and further high-quality evidence is necessary to inform clinical practice.

Keywords: Intra-arterial chemotherapy (IAC); Ophthalmic artery chemosurgery (OAC); Retinoblastoma (Rb); Superselective ophthalmic artery chemotherapy.

Publication types

  • Systematic Review

MeSH terms

  • Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage
  • Bronchial Spasm / chemically induced
  • Carboplatin / administration & dosage
  • Drug Resistance, Neoplasm*
  • Edema / chemically induced
  • Eyelashes / drug effects
  • Febrile Neutropenia / chemically induced
  • Humans
  • Infusions, Intra-Arterial / adverse effects
  • Infusions, Intra-Arterial / methods
  • Melphalan / administration & dosage
  • Methotrexate / administration & dosage
  • Nausea / chemically induced
  • Retinal Neoplasms / drug therapy*
  • Retinal Neoplasms / mortality
  • Retinal Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • Retinoblastoma / drug therapy*
  • Retinoblastoma / mortality
  • Retinoblastoma / radiotherapy
  • Salvage Therapy / adverse effects
  • Salvage Therapy / methods*
  • Salvage Therapy / statistics & numerical data
  • Topotecan / administration & dosage
  • Vitreous Hemorrhage / chemically induced
  • Vomiting / chemically induced

Substances

  • Antineoplastic Agents
  • Topotecan
  • Carboplatin
  • Melphalan
  • Methotrexate