Background: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between chronic endometritis and the epithelial-mesenchymal transition in the endometrium of infertile patients in the implantation phase.
Methods: Endometrial biopsy specimens from 66 infertility patients were analyzed. The presence of chronic endometritis was investigated by immunostaining for CD138. Immunohistochemical staining for E-cadherin, N-cadherin, Slug, and Snail was performed, and the expression profiles were statistically analyzed according to the presence of chronic endometritis. When the loss of E-cadherin expression and/or the positive expression of N-cadherin was detected, the specimen was considered epithelial-mesenchymal transition-positive. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition-positive cases were also statistically analyzed according to the presence of chronic endometritis. The characteristics of the patients in the epithelial-mesenchymal transition-positive and epithelial-mesenchymal transition-negative groups were compared. The association between variables, including age, body mass index, gravidity, parity, and each causative factor of infertility and epithelial-mesenchymal transition positivity was analyzed.
Results: The rates of the loss of E-cadherin expression, the gain of N-cadherin and epithelial-mesenchymal transition positivity were significantly higher in chronic endometritis patients. The expression of Slug, cytoplasmic Snail, and nuclear Snail was also detected at significantly higher rates in chronic endometritis patients. Chronic endometritis were related to the epithelial-mesenchymal transition.
Conclusion: The epithelial-mesenchymal transition was frequently detected in the endometrium in infertile patients with chronic endometritis. Since the epithelial-mesenchymal transition is associated with chronic endometritis, the epithelial-mesenchymal transition appears to be involved in the alteration of mechanisms of implantation.