High concordance of actionable genomic alterations identified between circulating tumor DNA-based and tissue-based next-generation sequencing testing in advanced non-small cell lung cancer: The Korean Lung Liquid Versus Invasive Biopsy Program

Cancer. 2021 Apr 7. doi: 10.1002/cncr.33571. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

Background: Because of the growing number of actionable biomarkers in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), sufficient tissue availability for testing is becoming a greater challenge. Liquid biopsy offers a potential solution by complementing standard tissue-based methods. In this study, the authors analyzed the concordance of actionable genomic alterations sequenced from circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA; Guardant360) and tissue (Oncomine Focus Assay).

Methods: From September 2015 to May 2018, 421 paired plasma and tissue samples from patients with advanced NSCLC who had previously undergone tissue testing by standard methods were collected. Both types of samples were available for 287 patients (262 in cohort 1 [treatment-naive] and 25 in cohort 2 [treatment failure]), and only 1 sample type was available for 134 patients (50 in cohort 3 [plasma only] and 84 in cohort 4 [tissue only]).

Results: In cohort 1, 198 samples (77.6%) showed concordance between tissue and plasma next-generation sequencing (NGS). Among the discordant cases, plasma testing detected additional genomic alterations in 11 patients (4.2%). In 50 patients without tissue-based NGS results (cohort 3), the ctDNA-based test detected genomic alterations in 20 samples (40.0%). The median allele frequency (AF) of mutations identified with ctDNA-based NGS (0.74%) was lower than that identified with the tissue-based NGS test (13.90%). Clinical responses to matched targeted therapy occurred, regardless of the ctDNA AF. Upfront ctDNA-based testing identified 60.4% of patients with genomic alterations. In addition, ctDNA-based testing uncovered 12.0% more actionable alterations when it was performed after tissue-based NGS testing.

Conclusions: The results indicate that a ctDNA-based test identifies additional patients with actionable genomic alterations and could, therefore, be used to complement traditional tissue-based testing for NSCLC.

Lay summary: Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA)-based next-generation sequencing (NGS) testing is becoming essential as the number of actionable genomic biomarker increases for the treatment selection of non-small cell lung cancer. This study demonstrates the additive value of ctDNA-based testing in addition to tissue-based NGS and standard of care-based biomarker testing for detecting additional patients with actionable genomic alterations. Clinical responses have also been observed in patients with a low allele frequency detected by ctDNA-based NGS testing.

Keywords: circulating tumor DNA; liquid biopsy; next-generation sequencing; non-small cell lung cancer.