Purpose: Epilepsy is a main manifestation in the autosomal dominant mental retardation syndrome caused by heterozygous variants in MEF2C. We aimed to delineate the electro-clinical features and refine the genotype-phenotype correlations in patients with MEF2C haploinsufficiency.
Methods: We thoroughly investigated 25 patients with genetically confirmed MEF2C-syndrome across 12 different European Genetics and Epilepsy Centers, focusing on the epileptic phenotype. Clinical features (seizure types, onset, evolution, and response to therapy), EEG recordings during waking/sleep, and neuroimaging findings were analyzed. We also performed a detailed literature review using the terms "MEF2C", "seizures", and "epilepsy".
Results: Epilepsy was diagnosed in 19 out of 25 (~80%) subjects, with age at onset <30 months. Ten individuals (40%) presented with febrile seizures and myoclonic seizures occurred in ~50% of patients. Epileptiform abnormalities were observed in 20/25 patients (80%) and hypoplasia/partial agenesis of the corpus callosum was detected in 12/25 patients (~50%). Nine patients harbored a 5q14.3 deletion encompassing MEF2C and at least one other gene. In 7 out of 10 patients with myoclonic seizures, MIR9-2 and LINC00461 were also deleted, whereas ADGRV1 was involved in 3/4 patients with spasms.
Conclusion: The epileptic phenotype of MEF2C-syndrome is variable. Febrile and myoclonic seizures are the most frequent, usually associated with a slowing of the background activity and irregular diffuse discharges of frontally dominant, symmetric or asymmetric, slow theta waves with interposed spike-and-waves complexes. The haploinsufficiency of ADGRV1, MIR9-2, and LINC00461 likely contributes to myoclonic seizures and spasms in patients with MEF2C syndrome.
Keywords: EEG; Electro-clinical phenotype; Epilepsy; MEF2C, ADGRV1; Seizures; Therapy.
Copyright © 2021. Published by Elsevier Ltd.