Genetically Proxied Inhibition of Coagulation Factors and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease: A Mendelian Randomization Study

J Am Heart Assoc. 2021 Apr 20;10(8):e019644. doi: 10.1161/JAHA.120.019644. Epub 2021 Apr 9.


Background We conducted Mendelian randomization analyses investigating the linear associations of genetically proxied inhibition of different coagulation factors with risk of common cardiovascular diseases. Methods and Results Genetic instruments proxying coagulation factor inhibition were identified from genome-wide association studies for activated partial thromboplastin time and prothrombin time in BioBank Japan (up to 58 110 participants). Instruments were identified for 9 coagulation factors (fibrinogen alpha, beta, and gamma chain; and factors II, V, VII, X, XI, and XII). Age- and sex-adjusted estimates for associations of the instruments with the outcomes were derived from UK Biobank and the FinnGen, CARDIoGRAMplusC4D (Coronary Artery Disease Genome-wide Replication and Meta-analysis), and MEGASTROKE consortia with numbers of incident and prevalent cases of 820 to 60 810. Genetically proxied inhibition of fibrinogen alpha, beta, and gamma chain, factor II, and factor XI were associated with reduced risk of venous thromboembolism (P<0.001). With the exception of fibrinogen beta and factor II, inhibition of these factors was also associated with reduced risk of any ischemic stroke and cardioembolic stroke (P≤0.002). Genetically proxied inhibition of fibrinogen beta and gamma were associated with reduced large-artery stroke risk (P=0.001). There were suggestive protective associations of genetically proxied inhibition of factors V, VII, and X with ischemic stroke (P<0.05), and suggestive adverse associations of genetically proxied inhibition of factors II and XII with subarachnoid hemorrhage. Conclusions This study supports targeting fibrinogen and factor XI for reducing venous thromboembolism and ischemic stroke risk, and showed suggestive evidence that inhibition of factors V, VII, and X might reduce ischemic stroke risk.

Keywords: Mendelian randomization analysis; cardiovascular disease; coagulation; stroke; venous thromboembolism.

Publication types

  • Multicenter Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Blood Coagulation Factors / genetics*
  • Blood Coagulation Factors / metabolism
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / epidemiology
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / genetics*
  • Genetic Predisposition to Disease*
  • Genome-Wide Association Study / methods
  • Humans
  • Japan / epidemiology
  • Mendelian Randomization Analysis / methods*
  • Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide*
  • Risk Factors


  • Blood Coagulation Factors