Goal-directed Fluid Therapy Versus Conventional Fluid Therapy During Craniotomy and Clipping of Cerebral Aneurysm: A Prospective Randomized Controlled Trial

J Neurosurg Anesthesiol. 2021 Apr 8. doi: 10.1097/ANA.0000000000000769. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

Background: Fluid imbalance is common after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage and negatively impacts clinical outcomes. We compared intraoperative goal-directed fluid therapy (GDFT) using left ventricular outflow tract velocity time integral (LVOT-VTI) measured by transesophageal echocardiography with central venous pressure (CVP)-guided fluid therapy during aneurysm clipping in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage patients.

Methods: Fifty adults scheduled for urgent craniotomy for aneurysm clipping were randomly allocated to 2 groups: group G (n=25) received GDFT guided by LVOT-VTI and group C (n=25) received CVP-guided fluid management. The primary outcome was intraoperative mean arterial pressure (MAP). Secondary outcomes included volume of fluid administered and several other intraoperative and postoperative variables, including neurological outcome at hospital discharge and at 30 and 90 days.

Results: There was no difference in MAP between the 2 groups despite patients in group G receiving lower volumes of fluid compared with patients in group C (2503.6±534.3 vs. 3732.8±676.5 mL, respectively; P<0.0001). Heart rate and diastolic blood pressure were also comparable between groups, whereas systolic blood pressure was higher in group G than in group C at several intraoperative time points. Other intraoperative variables, including blood loss, urine output, and lactate levels were not different between the 2 groups. Postoperative variables, including creatinine, duration of postoperative mechanical ventilation, length of intensive care unit and hospital stay, and incidence of acute kidney injury, pneumonitis, and vasospasm were also comparable between groups. There was no difference in neurological outcome at hospital discharge (modified Rankin scale) and at 30 and 90 days (Extended Glasgow Outcome Scale) between the 2 groups.

Conclusion: Compared with CVP-guided fluid therapy, transesophageal echocardiography-guided GDFT maintains MAP with lower volumes of intravenous fluid in patients undergoing clipping of intracranial aneurysms with no adverse impact on postoperative complications.