Background/aim: In ED chest pain patients, a 0-hour/1-hour protocol based on high sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) tests combined with clinical risk stratification in diagnosing acute coronary syndrome is recommended. Two of the most promising risk stratification tools are the History, ECG, Age, Risk Factors and Troponin (HEART) and Emergency Department Assessment of Chest Pain (EDAC) scores. Few studies have assessed the diagnostic accuracy of the 0-hour/1-hour hs-cTnT protocol when combined with HEART score, and none with EDACS. In ED chest pain patients, we aimed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of a 0-hour/1-hour hs-cTnT protocol combined the HEART Pathway, or the EDACS accelerated diagnostic pathway (EDACS-ADP).
Methods: This was a secondary analysis of data from a prospective observational study enrolling 1167 ED chest pain patients who visited the ED at Skåne University Hospital in Lund, Sweden in the period between February 2013 and April 2014. HEART and EDAC scores were assessed together with hs-cTnT at 0 and 1 hour and compared with HEART score alone. Sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value (NPV) and likelihood ratios were evaluated. The primary outcome was major adverse cardiac events (MACE) including unstable angina within 30 days. The secondary outcome was index visit acute myocardial infarction (AMI).
Results: A total of 939 patients were included in the final analysis. When combined with 0-hour/1-hour hs-cTnT testing, the HEART Pathway and EDACS-ADP identified 49.8% and 49.6% of the patients for rule-out, with NPVs for 30-day MACE of 99.8% and 99.1%, compared with the HEART score alone that identified 53.4% of the patients for rule-out with NPV of 99.2%. The NPV for index visit AMI were 100%, 99.8% and 99.2%, respectively.
Conclusion: The combination of the HEART Pathway or the EDACS-ADP with a 0-hour/1-hour hs-cTnT protocol allows safe and early rule-out in a large proportion of ED chest pain patients.
Keywords: acute coronary syndrome; acute myocardal infarct; cardiac care; diagnosis.
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