Liver cirrhosis is a major healthcare problem. Acute decompensation, and in particular its interplay with dysfunction of other organs, is responsible for the majority of deaths in patients with cirrhosis. Acute decompensation has different courses, from stable decompensated cirrhosis over unstable decompensated cirrhosis to pre-acute-on-chronic liver failure and finally acute-on-chronic liver failure, a syndrome with high short-term mortality. This review focuses on the recent developments in the field of acute decompensation and acute-on-chronic liver failure.
Keywords: Bacterial infection; Cirrhosis; Immune paralysis; Metabolic dysfunction; Organ failure; Portal hypertension; Systemic inflammation.
Copyright © 2021 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.