Background: Intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) or infarction in dengue cases is rare but very challenging for clinicians. We report these uncommon complications of dengue patients and focused on the significant factors associated with ICH or infarction in dengue patients.
Methods: This investigation was a retrospective study of 182 adult dengue patients who received brain computed tomography at three Taiwan hospitals during the 2014 and 2015 dengue outbreaks. This included 13 hemorrhage cases, 26 infarction cases and 143 cases without brain infarction or hemorrhage.
Results: Among them, 13 (7.14%) suffered from ICH (6 had subdural hemorrhage, 3 had subarachnoid hemorrhage, 1 had subdural and subarachnoid hemorrhage, and 3 had intracerebral hemorrhage) and 26 (14.3%) had brain infarction. The overall mortality rate was 4/13 (30.8%) in the ICH group and 3/26 (11.5%) in the infarction group. The significant variables from the univariate analysis, including difference between 2014 and 2015, age, history of cerebrovascular accident, bone pain, arthralgia, dizziness, altered consciousness, and a higher Charlson comorbidity score. Multivariate analysis revealed that significant risk factors for ICH/infarction in dengue cases were the year of occurrence, 2014 vs. 2015 (p < 0.0001, OR = 25.027, 95% CI = 8.205-76.336), Charlson score >4 (p = 0.01, OR = 3.764, 95% CI = 1.364-10.386) and altered consciousness (p < 0.0001, OR = 6.3, 95% CI = 2.242-17.7). The factors physicians should notice in dengue endemic regions for brain infarction or ICH include altered consciousness and a Charlson score >4, especially in the year that a higher frequency of infarction/ICH was observed.
Keywords: Dengue hemorrhagic fever; Extradural hematoma; Intracranial bleeding; Subdural hematoma; Thrombocytopenia.
Copyright © 2021. Published by Elsevier B.V.