Relationship between unhealthy sleep status and dry eye symptoms in a Japanese population: The JPHC-NEXT study

Ocul Surf. 2021 Jul:21:306-312. doi: 10.1016/j.jtos.2021.04.001. Epub 2021 Apr 18.


Purpose: To investigate whether and how unhealthy sleep habits (i.e., the frequency of difficulty falling or staying asleep, and the frequency of waking up tired) and the duration of sleep are related to the prevalence of dry eye disease (DED) in a general population.

Methods: This study included a total of 106,282 subjects aged 40-74 years who participated in a baseline survey of the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study for the Next Generation. DED was defined as the presence of clinically diagnosed DED or severe symptoms. Multivariable-adjusted logistic regression models were used to assess the relationships of various components of sleep status with DED.

Results: Higher frequencies of having difficulty falling or staying asleep, and waking up tired were significantly related to increased DED in both sexes (Ptrend<0.001). Compared with those with 8 h/day of sleep, shorter sleepers had an increased prevalence of DED in both sexes, although DED was increased among men who slept ≥10 h/day. By comparing participants with the greatest vs. the least difficulty of falling asleep, the multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval [CI]) were 2.23 (95% CI, 1.99-2.49) for men and 1.91 (95% CI, 1.76-2.07) for women. When analyzed separately, the magnitude of each relationship was stronger with severe DED symptoms than with clinically diagnosed DED.

Conclusions: Sleep deprivation and poor sleep quality were significantly related to DED in a Japanese population.

Keywords: Dry eye disease; Epidemiology; Lifestyle; Ocular disturbance; Sleep deprivation.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Dry Eye Syndromes* / diagnosis
  • Dry Eye Syndromes* / epidemiology
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Japan / epidemiology
  • Male
  • Prospective Studies
  • Risk Factors
  • Sleep
  • Surveys and Questionnaires