Effects of Interventions Using Virtual Manipulatives for Students With Learning Disabilities: A Synthesis of Single-Case Research

J Learn Disabil. 2022 Jul-Aug;55(4):325-337. doi: 10.1177/00222194211006336. Epub 2021 Apr 13.


Virtual manipulatives are interactive and dynamic visual objects on a screen, which allow students to manipulate them to construct mathematical knowledge. The purpose of this study was to synthesize the literature on interventions that used virtual manipulatives to improve the mathematics performance of K-12 students with learning disabilities. A total of 19 single-case design studies (16 peer-reviewed articles and three dissertations) were selected using specific selection criteria. Overall, students with learning disabilities demonstrated mathematical improvement after receiving interventions involving virtual manipulatives. Although many students with learning disabilities maintained and generalized the intervention effects, further research is required to verify the current findings.

Keywords: learning disabilities; mathematics; synthesis; virtual manipulatives.

MeSH terms

  • Humans
  • Learning Disabilities* / therapy
  • Mathematics
  • Students