The Current Management of Hepatorenal Syndrome-Acute Kidney Injury in the United States and the Potential of Terlipressin

Liver Transpl. 2021 Aug;27(8):1191-1202. doi: 10.1002/lt.26072. Epub 2021 Jul 14.


Acute kidney injury (AKI) in the setting of cirrhosis (hepatorenal syndrome [HRS]-AKI) is a severe and often fatal complication of end-stage liver disease. The goals of treatment are to reverse renal failure and prolong survival in patients who are critically ill. However, interventions have limited efficacy, and mortality rates remain high. In the United States, the mainstay of pharmacologic therapy consists of the off-label use of vasoconstrictive agents in combination with plasma expanders, a strategy that produces modest effects. Liver transplantation is the ultimate solution but is only an option in a minority of patients because contraindications to transplantation are common and organ availability is limited. Renal replacement therapy is a temporary option but is known to confer an extremely poor short-term prognosis in patients with HRS-AKI and at best serves as a bridge to liver transplantation for the minority of patients who are transplantation candidates. The high mortality rate associated with HRS-AKI in the United States is a reflection of the suboptimal standard of care. Improved therapeutic options to treat HRS-AKI are sought. Terlipressin is a drug approved in Europe for treatment of HRS-AKI and supported by recommendations for first-line therapy by some liver societies and experts around the world. This review article will discuss the substantial unmet medical need associated with HRS-AKI and the potential benefits if terlipressin was approved in the United States.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Acute Kidney Injury* / diagnosis
  • Acute Kidney Injury* / drug therapy
  • Hepatorenal Syndrome* / diagnosis
  • Hepatorenal Syndrome* / drug therapy
  • Humans
  • Liver Cirrhosis / complications
  • Liver Cirrhosis / drug therapy
  • Liver Transplantation* / adverse effects
  • Terlipressin
  • United States / epidemiology
  • Vasoconstrictor Agents / therapeutic use


  • Vasoconstrictor Agents
  • Terlipressin