The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to critically evaluate the currently existing clinical evidence on the efficacy of graftless maxillary sinus membrane elevation for implantation in the atrophic posterior maxilla. A search protocol without limitations to November 2020 was followed by two independent researchers. Randomized controlled trials using the lateral window approach for graftless sinus membrane elevation were included. Uncontrolled, retrospective, non-comparative studies, case reports, and experimental studies in animals or cadavers were excluded. The search identified 2777 studies. Critical selection by two independent researchers then led to the inclusion of a total of nine studies. A risk of bias assessment was applied using the revised Cochrane risk-of-bias tool for randomized trials. A meta-analysis was conducted for seven studies. Results showed a high overall implant survival rate in both the graftless and bone-grafted sinus lift groups (97.92% and 98.73%, respectively). The graftless sinus lift group showed a significantly lower vertical bone height gain, with a mean difference of -1.73mm (P=0.01), and a significantly lower bone density, with a mean difference of -94.7 HU (P<0.001). The implant stability quotient values did not differ significantly between the test and control groups (P=0.07).
Keywords: Bone formation; Dental implant; Implant supported dental prosthesis; Implant supported denture; Schneiderian membrane; Sinus floor augmentation.
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