Academic relationships between Hungarian professors and the Second Vienna Medical School

Wien Med Wochenschr. 2021 Apr 14. doi: 10.1007/s10354-021-00840-y. Online ahead of print.


This article discusses the impact of the 'second' Vienna Medical School, hallmarked by Karl Rokitansky, Joseph Skoda and Ferdinand Hebra, on the study and practice of medicine in Hungary. Six medical doctors' lives and achievements are outlined, who formed a bridge between Vienna and Budapest through their studies and work. Four of them returned to Hungary and promoted the cause of medicine and medical education there. Lajos Arányi (1812-1877) founded in 1844 the Institute of Pathology at the University of Pest. János Balassa (1814-1868) took the Chair of the Surgical Department. Ignaz Philip Semmelweis (1818-1865), the 'Saviour of Mothers', received a position at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology in Vienna in 1846. Gustav Scheuthauer (1832-1894) became Arányi's successor. Each of them continued to keep contact with their tutors in Vienna, especially with Karl Rokitansky, and followed the clinicopathological conception pioneered by the Vienna Medical School regarding diagnostics, treatment and prevention of diseases. Two physicians remained in Vienna: Mór Kaposi (1837-1902), who became known worldwide posthumously due to the connection between Kaposi's sarcoma and AIDS, was the director of the Department of Dermatology of the Vienna University in 1878. Salomon Stricker (1837-1898) undertook the leadership of the Department of General and Experimental Pathology in 1872.

Keywords: Ignaz Philipp Semmelweis; Karl Rokitansky; Mór Kaposi; University of Pest/Budapest; ‘Second’ Vienna Medical School.

Publication types

  • Review