The effect of high-dose, short-term caffeine intake on the renal clearance of calcium, sodium and creatinine in healthy adults

Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2021 Nov;87(11):4461-4466. doi: 10.1111/bcp.14856. Epub 2021 Apr 26.


The consumption of caffeine has been linked to osteoporosis, believed to be due to enhanced bone resorption as a result of increased calcium excretion in the urine. However, the amount of calcium in the urine may not necessarily reflect the true effect of caffeine on calcium clearance. This study therefore examined the impact of high-dose, short-term caffeine intake on renal clearance of calcium, sodium and creatinine in healthy adults. In a double-blind clinical study, participants chewed caffeine (n = 12) or placebo (n = 12) gum for 5 minutes at 2-hour intervals over a 6-hour treatment period (800 mg total caffeine). Caffeine increased renal calcium clearance by 77%. Furthermore, the effect was positively correlated with sodium clearance and urine volume, suggesting that caffeine may act through inhibition of sodium reabsorption in the proximal convoluted tubule. This study confirmed that caffeine does increase renal calcium clearance and fosters further investigation into safe consumption of caffeine.

Keywords: clinical trials; osteoporosis; pharmacokinetics.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Caffeine* / adverse effects
  • Calcium*
  • Creatinine
  • Humans
  • Kidney Function Tests
  • Sodium


  • Caffeine
  • Sodium
  • Creatinine
  • Calcium